- What is logging in microservices?
- Microservices logging Implementation
- How to use a structured logs at GCP
- Microservices logging best practices and tips
In this article, we will look at some recommended procedures for logging microservices and the architecture needed to manage distributed logging in the microservices environment. The goal is to share a guide for configuration of structural logging with a Google Cloud Provider using Node.js and nx tools. We will also go over best practices for microservices logging.
Any application, whether monolithic or microservices-based, must have an application log, however logging into microservices-based systems is challenging due to their core architecture. Given this, software engineers must follow best practices for microservices logging to guarantee app performance.
What is logging in microservices?
Logging into microservices has additional benefits that can be provided with the structure. It also has specific challenges because a single request in this architecture may stretch over numerous services and even travel back and forth. That is why we need a logging and monitoring system in microservices to track the end-to-end stream of a request via the system and locate the cause of bugs.
Writing information to a single log file and later reading it is all that is required to log into a monolith. A microservices-based application consists of numerous interacting components. Services may be distributed across many servers and even over different countries. Since each microservice retains its own set of data, this generates multiple log files.
To address this challenge proactively, each service in a microservices-based application must have its logging mechanism. We need to organize these log files properly to quickly troubleshoot an issue as a correlation ID is used to link calls made to different microservices. A single logging method creates a single location for the storage of all logs instead of distributing them among many services.
Why do we need logging in Microservices?
Software development inevitably faces bugs and unexpected failures. Programming often entails writing and testing code continuously to fix all of the flaws. Programmers use logging as a key tool to comprehend the state of a system and evaluate whether functions were carried out as intended. Developers can quickly identify potential problem areas in code by using solid logging instead of spending a lot of time searching through the entire codebase.
Logging is even more crucial in the world of microservices, where modular components individually perform a limited set of tasks, to control the complexity brought on by a fragmented architecture. Microservices have advantages over monolithic applications in terms of flexibility and scalability. But if any issue occurs, engineers will need to identify it across a wide range of services.
A microservices-based program may operate several services that interact with one another. When one or more services stop working, things become complicated. Decoding the entire request path in microservices is challenging. Developers need to understand the entire request flow, including which services were used, how frequently they were leveraged, and in what order.
You should have accurate records available and a separate Id to correlate requests to respond to these concerns. You should have a suitable method for tracking errors that may include multiple microservices. Moreover, as the business logic of your applications is distributed across multiple microservices, the complexity of monitoring and logging increases rapidly.
Nowadays, microservices logging has become an essential tool to not only track errors but also to collect important metrics from an application. This valuable data can help understand the internals of microservices and make them more efficient and error-resilient.
Microservices project context
In the analyzed case, our application consists of two backend microservices. So, using our logger library we can track what is going on in a specific environment with a specific microservice. For this let us use a monorepo approach, create two backend services and a common logging library built on a Winston logger lib.
Also, let’s agree to use two common “logging tags”: environment and service. They will help us to filter logs and build logging metrics by environment and service.
Microservices logging Implementation
Let’s create a monorepo with two express API services and a common logger library.
# Create actually monorepo “logging” $ npx create-nx-workspace@latest logging # Create first service - service1 $ nx generate @nrwl/express:app service1 # Create second service - service2 $ nx generate @nrwl/express:app service2 # Create a common logger lib, which can be imported by a path “@libs/logger” $ nx g @nrwl/js:lib logger --buildable --publishable --importPath="@libs/logger"
Logger library implementation
Let’s build our logger library using the powerful NodeJS winston library.
Open generated by an nx tool libs/logger/src/lib/logger.ts file and add the following lines:
How to use a logger in a codebase
Let’s use our logger “creature” in a microservice. This is as easy as importing the lib.
How to use a structured logs at GCP
GCP Logging supports a powerful search language that fully covers our needs. It also can build custom metrics based on specific logs: counter – to calculate the number of entries and distribution – to see numeric values over time. Programmers can use all these custom-defined metrics to build dashboards and alerts. That significantly improves the visibility of the system internals. So, accounting for all the above, we consider logs not just as simple text records but also as potential custom metrics that we can leverage for system alerting and monitoring.
How to filter logs by logger tags in a GCP logging platform
We consider a scenario where our microservices are hosted by Kubernetes or Cloud Run. So, all logs will be reported to a GCP Logging and we can filter them by defined tags: environment and service.
- To extract logs from a specific environment for all services enter the following query
- To extract logs from a specific environment for a specific service enter the following query
- To extract logs from a specific environment for a specific service by a custom field (“metadata” from an example above) enter the following query
Microservices logging best practices and tips
Both monoliths and microservices share fundamental components of efficient logging. We will cover a few essential factors. If you log everything, you run the risk of filling up your disk with huge files. It can take a while to access a large log file and run a search through it. However, excessive shortness may render logs meaningless when it comes time to troubleshoot a specific problem. In any case, record details like special identifiers that will show what the program was executing when it made an error. Consider which information is worth logging for metrics analysis, auditing, or other business purposes in addition to the debugging use case.
Generate unique IDs to correlate Requests
Microservice interaction occurs through an HTTP endpoint. End customers are only familiar with API requests; they have no idea how services operate. Developers can separate groups of processes and keep track of specific requests by using correlation IDs, which are distinctive identifiers. The correlation ID needs to be unique, available to downstream services, and thoroughly recorded alongside other crucial service call information. With access to these logs, troubleshooters can do an ID search to discover information about specific service calls, including how frequently they were made. The correlation ID can then be used to determine in which service the transaction failure occurred.
Standardize log format
You can employ various technology stacks for each service by utilizing microservices architecture. Let’s assume that Python is used for the inventory service, Java for the shipping module, and .Net for the payments management. It will impact the logging for these services, having different formats and fields. Standardization is crucial for integrating logs amongst services in microservices. You will need to select a unique format and use it consistently throughout all of the logs, using the same naming rules. Keys and values names should match when microservices are handling the same data.
Log only useful data
You can log all the data that you get. However, to optimize the process and storage usage we recommend focusing only on the information which might be helpful in troubleshooting. Log when events happened with the same timezone for all logs. Register the type of errors. Record where, and in which service, it occurred. You will need to know the function name or file name where the error happened.
Structure all your logs
The standardization of logs may be affected if a microservices-based app employs multiple structures to log data in distinct stacks. For instance, one service might use a pipe symbol and another a comma to separate fields. Therefore, tech experts will not be able to conduct the same level of analysis on each log. By using a consistent entry format, you can standardize logging. A single format enables developers to easily query, search, and analyze the log data. Microservices logs are made easier thanks to structured logging.
Implement centralized logging
Microservices apps can take full advantage of their benefits, such as scalability, and higher developer velocity, with centralized logging. At the same time, they will keep a single source of the log data. Developers, and analysts, who rely on log analysis to improve the system, will benefit from this. The complexity of troubleshooting is significantly reduced by log aggregation since several files are not required to perform an analysis.
Make your logs GDPR-compliant
In microservices, you might log requests from end users that include personally identifiable information. Watch out, as it might be against GDPR requirements. Logging PII, like passwords and social security numbers, must be avoided, especially if local regulations forbid this practice. Privacy concerns are raised because engineers may need to go through logs for debugging purposes, making all the personal information potentially visible to other people. If you need to study user behavior, create a system where logging will combine particular sensitive data types, and at the same time maintain anonymity.
Detect and resolve microservices system issues faster
In a microservices-based application, logging is crucial, but you should be aware of the problems, fixes, and best practices. Microservices must be monitored since the growing complexity of software might make it challenging to monitor its performance and identify issues. DevOps can collect metrics from the microservices, and then use those measurements to obtain insights into how the system is operating, with the help of an effective logging system.
Data tracing allows programming teams to assess system performance to measure the impact of changes and it also enables rapid issue detection and resolution. We hope that our approach to structural logging configuration with a Google Cloud Provider, Node.js, and nx tools will make it simpler and more efficient for your programming teams to keep track of your microservices system downturns. If your company needs support on microservices infrastructure monitoring and management, do not hesitate to get in touch with our IT experts.
Let’s talk about your project
Drop us a line! We would love to hear from you.